In the aftermath of a global financial crisis, the past decade has been characterized by increased fiscal pressure. Against this backdrop, it is no surprise that many have called for strengthened efforts in domestic resource mobilization. Domestic resources are the largest untapped source of development financing, but the effective mobilization thereof poses significant challenges in terms of revenue policy and administration strategies. This book provides an overview of various policies that can significantly contribute to increasing domestic revenues by enhancing tax compliance, curbing tax evasion and improving the relationship between taxpayers and tax administrations. It consists of national reports from 33 countries around the globe, initially discussed at the conference “Improving Tax Compliance in a Globalized World” in Rust (Austria) from 30 June to 2 July 2016. The book explores various approaches to improving tax compliance. Access to tax information is at the centre of the debate, including the collection of third-party information, information obtained as a result of cooperation between tax administrations and as a result of inter-agency cooperation between tax administrations, financial intelligence units and law enforcement agencies. Moreover, the book sheds some light on alternatives to improve tax collection and suggests potential measures to enhance voluntary tax compliance. Finally, it looks forward to potential challenges that may be faced by tax administrations in the future. Taken as a whole, this study contributes to the challenging task of making tax administrations more effective and more efficient.